Energy, environment and climate change: Projects

  • Deep decarbonisation pathways project – Phase 1

    Client: German Ministry for Environment

    Period: December 2013–August 2014

    Project leader: Hilton Trollip

    Project team: Hilton Trollip, Bruno Merven, Harald Winkler, with Henri Waismann (IDDRI)


    The ERC worked with the international DDPP team over the period December 2013 to August 2014 to provide the initial Deep decarbonisation pathways South African Country Chapter for the DDPP Interim 2014 report. As well as the research and provision of the quantitative pathways and drafting of the Country Chapter, this included contributions to the project concept and the report text. A central aspect was introducing a developmental narrative and quantitative developmental indicators to the pathways.

    The SA Country Report was one of 15 country reports, representing 70% of global emissions, and was submitted to the United Nations Secretary-General in preparation for the UN Climate Summit 2014. There it formed the basis of working to commitment to achieving 2°C consistent pathways.

    The SA country report can be found here.

    (For information on DDPP Phase 2, see here; on DDPP: Political economy, see here.)

  • Deep decarbonisation pathways project – Phase 2

    Client: German Ministry for Environment

    Period: September 2014–October 2015

    Project leader: Hilton Trollip

    Project team: Hilton Trollip, Tara Caetano, Bruno Merven, Alison Hughes, Katye Altieri, Harald Winkler, with Henri Waismann (IDDRI)

    Phase 2 of the Deep decarbonisation pathways project is a collaboration between ERC and the international DDPP founded and coordinated by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network and the Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations.

    Background: Phase 1 (Phase 2 is a continuation and extension)
    The ERC worked with the international DDPP team over the period December 2013 to August 2014 to provide the initial Deep decarbonisation pathways South African Country Chapter for the DDPP Interim 2014 report. As well as the research and provision of the quantitative pathways and drafting of the Country Chapter, this included contributions to the project concept and the report text. A central aspect was introducing a developmental narrative and quantitative developmental indicators to the pathways. (For further information on Phase 1, see here.)

    Other links:

    Phase 2
    ERC is continuing work with the international DDPP team over the period September 2014 to December 2015 to provide a set of final deep decarbonisation pathways for South Africa for the DDPP Final 2015 report. In addition, during 2015, ERC will produce a country report for South Africa, contribute to the design and concept of the project and participate in drafting the final joint report. In this second phase of work, ERC’s efforts will be focused on strengthening the ‘development-first’ narrative by formulating development-climate scenarios.

    The work involves significant further development of ERCs versions of the South African eSAGE CGE model and the SATIM model and using them in a soft-linked mode. The CGE model is being extended and adjusted to provide economic trajectories to 2050 that explore to what extent South Africa can meet development imperatives. The SATIM model is being extended to provide more disaggregated and accurate modeling for exploring deep-decarbonisation.

    In addition to the provision of the Pathway Results to the multi-team project and the Country Report and work on the joint report the following presentations / publications are envisaged, although depend on selection by various bodies.

    • Presentations to the Our Common Futures Science Conference. Three abstracts have been submitted.
    • Two papers for the special issue of Climate Policy.
  • Deep decarbonisation pathways project: Political economy

    Client: German Ministry for Environment

    Period: March 2015 to October 2015

    Project leader: Hilton Trollip

    Project team: Hilton Trollip, Jesse Burton, Harald Winkler, Lucy Baker (Sussex University)

    The Phase 2 work on DDPP  largely covers the techno-economics of deep decarbonisation and meeting development imperatives, and will in addition take into account some of the political and institutional constraints that pose a challenge to the realisation of deep decarbonization in South Africa. This Phase 2 DDPP work will include a detailed South African country report of some 60-80 pages which will be a key reference for the political economy report.

    The Political Economy Study will use the DDPP detailed South African Country Report as a basis and focus on embedding the quantitative modeling results, that are key results from the DDPP Phase 2, into a political and institutional context. Another key result from the DDPP Phase 2 will be a qualitative and quantitative description of development imperatives to be met whilst also considering a low carbon economy. These will also be a key aspect informing the political economy analysis.

    This will enable the Research Report to explore the key research question posed in the Terms of Reference: “Why technologically feasible scenarios of deep decarbonization are either blocked by countervailing societal forces or alternatively, how they are being translated into socially and politically accepted solutions.”

    The methodology is based on primary data gathered in semi-structured interviews for this study, supplemented by reference to previous interviews and content analysis of key documents. This research will undertake between 15-30 semi-structured interviews, and may draw on interview material from previous research projects where these are in alignment with the objectives of the ToR.

    In-depth textual analyses of relevant national policies, government documents and press articles (e.g. in Engineering News, ESI Africa) will also be carried out with regards to understanding and recording key and on-going developments and debates in the energy sector.

    As well as the report, a peer-reviewed journal article is planned, together with presentation of research findings in national fora (e.g. academic conferences, policy seminars), and international conferences, funding permitting.

  • Climate change mitigation and poverty reduction – Trade-offs or win-win situations?

    Client: Funded by Compagnia di San Paolo, Riksbankens Jubileumsfond and VolkswagenStiftung joint research programme ‘Europe and Global Challenges’

    Period:  2013-2016

    Project leader at ERC:  Britta Rennkamp

    Project team at ERC: Tara Caetano, Loveline Muluh, Britta Rennkamp, Holle Wlokas, Teboho Nchaba

    The project tackles the essential question of how to reduce emissions and poverty at the same time. We analyse the relationship between climate change mitigation and poverty reduction in three developing countries – South Africa, Thailand and Mexico – from a multi-disciplinary perspective. We structured our research in three areas.

    The first area is the analysis of the political economies in all three countries to identify the causes of poverty and key emitting sectors and the institutional framework and policies that aim to reduce both poverty and emissions. The analysis of the political economies has the purpose to identify the key actors, blockages and drivers for implementation of mitigation policies. Further, we analyse key mitigation actions, such as carbon taxes as well as renewable energy and climate laws in a discourse network analysed.

    The second area analyses the impacts carbon taxes and fossil fuel subsidies on income distribution. The purpose here is to analyze the socio-economic impacts of the feasible mitigation options identified in the first area using applied macro and micro modeling techniques.

    The third area deals with the question whether and how poverty eradication is and can be dealt with within the existing global climate regime, drawing on the findings of the first two research areas. In light of scientific uncertainty and overriding arguments of justice and ethics, the role and effects that arguments, discourse and rhetoric – albeit in a context of considerable power differentials – have among the members of this regime is of particular interest here.

  • Mitigation action plans and scenarios

    Client: Children’s Investment Fund Foundation

    Period:  July 2010–December 2013

    Process lead: Stefan Raubenheimer (SouthSouthNorth)

    Strategy lead: Harald Winkler

    The programme is run by ERC in collaboration with the SouthSouthNorth Trust

    MAPS combines facilitated stakeholder processes with research. The programme will support South-South collaboration between developing countries in their plans to implement more ambitious mitigation actions.  ERC will focus on supporting researchers in MAPS countries, in analysing actions and how that can contribute to achieving targets and overall reductions in the growth of emissions.  MAPS builds on the experience of South Africa’s long-term mitigation scenarios. MAPS activities in each country will crucially include a participative process with stakeholders from all sectors. In this sense, MAPS is not only another research study – but the information will be produced in partnership with the best indigenous and international research.  It will strongly build on existing in-country research capacity, feeding information into a national process run by the country.

    MAPS will start its implementation phase in earnest in 2011, with a focus on Latin American countries – and extension to African and Asian countries will be considered during this year. The MAPS team includes organisations in each country, and is supported by the same two organisations that managed the technical work in LTMS – ERC and SouthSouthNorth. In addition, a knowledge platform will be created, and support will be provided for researchers and facilitators from all MAPS countries. MAPS aims to share lessons and build a best practice research base. There will be research-based outputs from MAPS, but beyond research MAPS hopes to help to unlock the opportunities of a low-carbon future in the context of development.

  • Mitigation action plans and scenarios (2)

    Client: Children Invenstment Fund Foundation

    Period: Mid 2010-December 2015

    Project team: See at end

    MAPS is a collaboration amongst developing countries. It seeks to establiash the evidence base for long-term transition to robust economies that are both carbon efficient and climate resillient. In this way MAPS contributes to ambitious climate change mitigation that aligns economic development with poverty alleviation.

    Through its collaboration, MAPS offers an opportunity to establish synergies and share lessons with participating developing countries as well as the wider climate change and development community and academics, using the in-country processes as living laboratories.

    Central to MAPS is the facilitated interaction between key stakeholders and in-country research teams under the guidance of a multi-ministerial government team. This interaction takes place primarily in scenario building team meetings. Here inputs to models and results are discussed and agreed upon. The rigour of information generated by this research method, that includes the involvement of stakeholders, produces results that are credible, legitimate and relevant. These results provide a sound basis with which to answer key policy questions and inform policy developments, such as the elaboration of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions. For more information on the MAPS approach, please see here on the MAPS website visit: MAPS is currently active in Brazil, Chile, Colombia and  Peru. Preparatory in-country work has started in a number of African countries and India.

    The main objectivies of the MAPS Programme are:

    • To support country teams to ensure legitimacy and relevance through mandates and authorizing environments and full endorsement and application of resulsts respectively.
    • To support country process design, including facilitation of processes and optimal involvement of key stakeholders to enhance credibility
    • To support country teams to achieve robust and high quality research outcomes, through direct support, supplementary research inputs and outpurs, and informal and formal review work
    • To produce, manage and disseminate knowledge on the MAPS approach that promotes best practice, enrich the knowledge base in developing countries and creates and implements a lab programme for regional and south-south collaboration and learning
    • To support the BASIC Group of Experts on Climate Change

    The MAPS Research agenda include the following topics: integration of development and climate objectives, multi-objective modeling, linking economic and energy models, policy analysis, research on implementation and theories of change, equity and cobenefits assessment.

    Programme team
    The MAPS programme is coordinated and implemented by a consortium led by ERC and SouthSoutNorth, the NGO based in Cape Town. A comprehensive overview of MAPS team members in Peru, Chile, Brazil, Colombia and South Africa can be found on the MAPS website

    Project leadership: Harald Winkler (ERC; Strategy lead); Stef Raunbenheimer (SSN; Process lead); Marta Torres Gunfaus (ERC; Research lead); Michelle du Toit (SSN; Overall project coordinator)

    ERC project research team: Harald Winkler, Marta Torres-Gunfaus, Michael Boulle, Adrian Stone, Brett Cohen, Tara Caetano, Bruno Merven, Kim Coetzee, Britta Renkamp, Hilton Trollip, Louise Tait, Andrew Marquard, Samantha Keen, Alfrede Moyo, Katye Altieri, Mamahloko Senatla

    Other local researchers: Emily Tyler, Tanya Visser, Lisa Kane, Blaise Dobson

  • Successful energy innovation in South Africa and around the world

    Client: Department of Science & Technology of South Africa, Chief Directorate for Hydrogen and Energy

    Period: April 2014 – December 2014

    Project leader: Bram Buijs (Visiting Researcher at Energy Research Centre)

    Project team: Bram Buijs, Guy Cunliffe (ERC Intern), Takunda Mambo (ERC Intern), Harald Winkler, Britta Rennkamp, Anastassios Pouris (Institute for Technological Innovation, University of Pretoria), Frik van Niekerk (North-West University)

    The Energy Research Centre was approached by the Department of Science and Technology to undertake a research project in support of their Energy Research, Development and Innovation Strategy.

    The objective of the project has been to assess what lessons can be learned from international experiences in energy innovation and the commercialization of energy technologies. Combined with two assessments of the current status of energy research in South Africa, this could then help inform national R&D and innovation policy for the energy sector by the Department of Science and Technology.

    The project consisted of three main components, which have been completed in collaboration with North-West University and the University of Pretoria:

    1. A country comparative study on energy innovation: undertaken by the Energy Research Centre. In this country-comparative study, five countries and the development history of several energy technologies has been analysed in separate studies:

    • Brazil (biofuels for transport and flex-fuel technology)
    • China (wind energy, solar PV and nuclear energy)
    • Denmark (wind technology)
    • South Korea (nuclear technology)
    • United States (battery technology for electric vehicles)

    For each of the country case studies, the historical development of specific energy technology innovations and their commercialization was analysed, with a focus on the role of government policies and policies on R&D and innovation in particular. The aim has been to derive generic lessons regarding the ‘choice’ for certain technologies and the nature of supportive policies that have led to successful commercialization.

    2. A review of the state of energy research in South Africa: this component has been based upon The State of Energy Research in South Africa that was published by the Academy of Sciences of South Africa (ASSAf) in August 2014, under supervision of Prof. Van Niekerk of North-West University. It provides a thorough analysis of energy research activities, collaboration and funding in various fields based upon desktop research and questionnaire among the energy research community of South Africa.

    3. An assessment of scientific energy research in South Africa: undertaken by Prof. Pouris of the University of Pretoria. This component analyses the scientific output of South Africa’s energy research community and places it in international perspective.

    The conclusions of the project, based on the three components, established several policy lessons and implications for South Africa’s energy research, development and innovation strategy.

    The project has resulted in several papers. In addition, several workshops have been held with the Department and other collaborators of the project. The intention is to rework one or more papers derived from the project into academic journal articles.

  • Swaziland mitigations options analysis

    Client: Swaziland, through the Ministry of Tourism and Environmental Affairs, Department of Meteorology

    Period: January–March 2015

    Project team: Hilton Trollip, Mamahloko Senatla, Tony Knowles (Director: The Cirrus Group)

    The aim of this consultancy is to prepare a national report on measures to mitigate climate change (mitigation options) from the key greenhouse gas emissions sectors (energy, agriculture, industrial processes, LULUCF and waste) in the country and compile information related to existing mitigation actions, including coverage and objectives, the extent of reduction achieved or projected to achieve.

    The output can be summarised as a list of mitigation actions with the following information:

    • Name and description of the mitigation action including information on the nature of the action, coverage, budget (financial costs) and sources of funding , qualitative goals and progress indicators;
    • Information on methodologies and assumptions;
    • Objectives of the actions and steps undertaken or envisaged to be achieved that action;
    • Information on the progress of implementation of the mitigation actions and the
    • Results achieved such as estimated outcomes and estimated emission reduction.
    • Constraints, gaps and related financial, technical and capacity building needs related to mitigation in the specific sector.

    Two workshops, an inception workshop and stakeholder validation workshop are included.

    The project includes a capacity building visit by two officials of MTEA to ERC for a week.

    Outputs consist of a national mitigation options analysis report and a summary chapter to the TNC.

  • Modelling the implications of socio-economic development of mitigation actions by developing countries

    Client: Climate and Development Knowledge Network

    Period: April 2012 – September 2014

    Principal investigator: Harald Winkler

    ERC research leader: Alfred Moyo

    ERC project team: Harald Winkler, Alfred Moyo, Bruno Merven, Adrian Stone, Anthony Dane

    Research leaders at collaborating institutions: Amaro Olimpio Pereira Junior (Brazil), Rodrigo Palma (Chile), Juan Benavides and Ricardo Delgado (Colombia); Angel Salazaar (Peru)


    Achieving both development and climate objectives is a key challenge facing developing countries. Policy-makers however lack reliable information on the socio-economic implications of mitigation actions, as the modelling required to provide this information is unavailable.

    On this project, five research institutions in developing countries made an undertaking to develop sophisticated models needed to answer policy relevant questions on the implications of mitigation action within their respective countries. The Energy Research Centre collaborated with the Energy Planning Programme at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE), Brazil; the Energy Strategic Research Centre, Universidad de los Andes, Bogota (UniAndes) Colombia; Energy Centre, University of Chile (Chile); and the Instituto de Investigación de la Amazonía Peruana (IIAP), Peru. These institutions are also part of the broader Mitigation Action Plans and Scenarios (MAPS) project.

    Through this South-South collaboration, cutting edge methodologies were developed to link sectoral and economy-wide models, in order to provide provide a robust information base for policy-making and address issues crucial to the development of climate compatible policy. There was a dedicated research effort to build appropriate modeling tools for each country, with each country team drawing on its existing modeling strengths, contributing to shared learning and learning from others. Each partner focused on issues of particular significance in their country to ensure that results would have higher impact at national level. All considered carbon taxes and their socio-economic implications, using their respective tools.

    Project deliverables

    Two workshops – EconLab 1 in 2012 and EconLab 2  in 2013, both held jointly with MAPS

    Five working papers, one from each research partner:

    • Vasquez Baos, T G, Salazar, A A V & Del Castillo, D 2014. Agroforestry systems as CER providers: An analysis for the Peruvian amazon region.
    • Wills, W, Grottera, C, Weiss, M, Martins, V, dos Santos, L,  Moura, G and Moreira, M. 2014. Brazilian Mitigation Scenarios Beyond 2020: Modelling and Methodologies.
    • Benavides, C, Gonzales, L, Díaz, M, Palma, R, García, G, Ravizza, C, Fuentes, R. 2014. Economy-Wide Implications of a Carbon Tax in the Chilean Electricity Generation Sector.
    • Delgado, R, Alvarez, Matajira, C, Cadena, A and Calderon, S. 2014 Modelling the socio-economic implications of mitigation actions in Colombia. Working Paper,
    • Merven, B, Moyo, A, Stone, A, Dane, A and Winkler, H. Socio-economic implications of mitigation in the power sector including carbon taxes in South Africa.

    Five policy briefs based on each of the above working papers

    A joint paper incorporating all the research work from the consortium partners:

    • Winkler, H, Delgado, R, Palma-Behnke, R, Pereira, A, Vasquez Baos, T, Moyo, A, Wills, W and Salazar, A. 2014. Information for a developmental approach to mitigation: Linking sectoral and economy-wide models for Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru and South Africa
  • Research into the feasibility of mitigation action plans and scenarios (MAPS) in Africa

    Client: CDKN

    Period: March 2013 - February 2014

    Project leaders: Harald Winkler and Stefan Raubenheimer

    Project team: ERC & SouthSouthNorth

    The focus of this project is a scoping study for a possible African-focused Mitigation Action Plans and Scenarios (MAPS) programme built from the ERC’s experience with running MAPS in Latin America (namely Peru, Brazil, Colombia and Chile). This project will evaluate the feasibility of a full MAPS Africa engagement over a three-year programme with more resources allocated. An initial six-week inception phase focused on six potential African countries to engage with, namely, Zambia, Mozambique, Rwanda, Ghana, Kenya and Botswana. It was decided to focus on the first four of those countries for the 12-month feasibility study. These four strike a balance in terms of the various considerations e.g. geography, current level of international climate change activity, and population trajectories.

    Country-level relationships and partners present a preferred approach for proximate support based on the research and discussions over the inception phase. The MAPS Africa team will appoint country partners, whose main role will be to assist in the feasibility study, particularly by helping to identify potential relevant climate change stakeholders and facilitate engagements with the MAPS Africa team. The feasibility study will produce a business plan. The MAPS Africa programme over the 2014–2017 period will ultimately depend on the funding available. In the process of conducting the feasibility study, this project will build local capacity through the MAPS Facilitation Course and Research Lab/bursary programmes. In-country researchers taking part in this project will do detailed work in the next phase for the three-year programme MAPS Africa programme after February 2014.

  • AIM – Actions for mitigation and impacts on South Africa’s sustainable development goals

    Client: United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)

    Period:  2011-2013

    Project leader at ERC:  Britta Rennkamp

    Project team at ERC: Britta Rennkamp, Anya Boyd, Tara Caetano, Wendy Engel, Anthony Dane, Holle Wlokas, Yusuf Coovadia (Master student at the Business School)

    In this project, we analyse interventions for climate change mitigation and their contribution to the South African sustainable development goals. The research supports South Africa’s sustainable development planning efforts. The analyses create evidence on developmental impacts of several mitigation actions to support decision-making processes and implementation. Our case studies investigate electro-mobility, wind energy and solar-water heating. This research has been inspired by Mohan Munasinghe’s Action Impact Matrix (AIM) for sustainable development planning and our collaboration with his institute has been funded by UNITAR.


    Research poster series on South African mitigation options and their contribution to the low carbon development goals:

    Wlokas, HL and Ellis, C: How does the low-pressure solar water heater roll-out create employment in local communities?

    Caetano, T: Nuclear power: Structural change, lock-ins and trade-offs

    Rennkamp, B, Westin, FF: Made in South Africa? Feito no Brasil? Boosting technological development through local content requirements in the wind energy industry

    Dane, A: The potential of electric vehicles to contribute towards South Africa’s GHG emissions targets and other developmental objectives.

    Research papers:

    • Dane, A. 2013. The potential of electric vehicles to contribute to South Africa’s greenhouse gas emissions targets and other developmental objectives: How appropriate is the investment in electric vehicles as a NAMA?

    • Rennkamp, B. 2013. Sustainable development planning in South Africa: a case of over-strategizing?

    • Rennkamp, B & Westin, F. 2013. Feito no Brasil? Made in South Africa? Boosting technological development through local content requirements in the wind energy industry.

    • Wlokas, HL & Ellis, C. 2013. Local employment through the low-pressure solar water heater roll-out in South Africa.

  • Estimating effective carbon prices in South Africa

    Client: OECD

    Period:  2011

    Project leader:  Britta Rennkamp

    Project team: Britta Rennkamp, Andrew Marquard, Tara Caetano

    Putting a price on carbon is currently one of the most important topics on the South African climate policy agenda. The National Climate Change Response White paper indicates that it will be necessary to price carbon emissions. The national treasury suggests tax instrument for this purpose. Yet, there are a number of implicit pricing instruments on carbon in place already. In their study on effective carbon prices, ERC researchers analyze the current instruments for carbon pricing in the energy and transport sector and their impacts on the pulp and paper and cement industries as well as households. The Organization for Economic Development and Cooperation OECD does comparative work on carbon prices and has commissioned similar studies in other countries.

  • Carbon budget methods for South Africa

    Client: Sustainable Energy Africa

    Period:  January–March 2012

    Project team: Harald Winkler and Andrew Marquard

    This research considers the method by which carbon budgets (CB) can be defined for major sectors and sub-sectors in South Africa. Climate policy has mandated the definition of sectoral carbon budgets and the National Development Plan endorses the CB approach. The 2011 White Paper  affirms that SA’s greenhouse emissions must ‘peak, plateau and decline’ (PPD), thereby formalising in policy the strategic direction Cabinet had set in response to the Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios (LTMS). The same PPD pathway was part of the Copenhagen pledge, that emissions would deviate 34% below business-as-usual by 2020 and 42% by 2025, as communicated formally to the UNFCCC in 2010. The area under a curve is effectively our national carbon budget. Allocating it to secxtors and firms should be based on science and equity.

    Our research will examine methodologies to divide the national CB among sectors – and major emitting facilities. We critically examine methodologies for robust accounting of GHG emission reductions,  reviewing a range of methodologies – both those used internaitonally and in previous research in South Africa. As the LTMS demonstrated, both research and process are crucial. So this brief think-piece will also consider elements of the allocation process that will be needed, and how different constraints to a national negotiating process on a CB might be addressed.

  • Measurement and performance tracking

    Client: World Resources Institute

    Period: January 2011 – December 2014

    Project leader: Anya Boyd

    Project team: Anya Boyd, Britta Rennkamp, Harald Winkler, Anthony Dane, Samantha Keen, Michael Boulle Richard Larmour, Thapelo Letete

    Research assistance: Olumide Ogunmodimu, Shoeshoe Letoao, Guy Cunliffe

    The goal of this project was to conduct research to inform a national system systems to make mitigation actions measurable, reportable and verifiable (MRV), The ERC research team collaborated with the Department of Environmental Affairs, the National Business Initiative and other key actors to advance the design and implementation of national MRV system.

    In the first year of the project the ERC focused on mapping existing institutional arrangement and data for a future MRV system in South Africa . The ERC team hosted the first workshop on MRV in South Africa.  In 2012 the research focused on the nexus between MRV regulation at national, provincial and local levels of governance and it created an arena for practitioners to share their experiences at a national workshop. The workshop created a welcome platform to ask questions and to discuss possible approaches for MRV. Further research in 2012 focused on co-benefits of mitigation actions the domestic MRV system in South Africa and an examination of the solar water heater roll out in South Africa

    The ERC focused on international approaches to MRV and hosted an international meeting with developing country MAPT colleagues who were also grappling with domestic MRV. Discussions of the institutional arrangements, data and governance structures for MRV in South Africa and nine other developing countries revealed that many countries have similar concerns about implementing MRV systems, in terms of coherence of structures for reporting and data collections.

    The research agenda concluded in 2014 with a particular focus on MRV in practice by interrogating one of South Africa’s most prominent mitigation efforts – the Renewable Energy procurement programme. This final piece on the South African renewable programme shares some of the realities of the ‘how’ with respect to MRV.

    For general information on the project, visit the WRI website. For further research publications by MAPT participants, visit the MAPT country partner website.

  • Developing country participation in addressing climate change

    Client: Centre for Global Environment Research, The Energy and Resources Institute, for the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    Period: 2012 – June 2014

    Project leader: Anya Boyd

    Project team: Anya Boyd, Kim Coetzee, Michael Boulle

    Large, emerging developing countries have been the focus of growing attention in relation to their contribution to the global mitigation effort and their role in the emerging architecture of the international climate regime complex. This has become even more pronounced since the introduction of the concept of ‘Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions’ at COP13 in Bali in 2007. This project aims to address these concerns by focusing on the element of the ‘appropriateness’ of mitigation action to the developing countries.

    Since the debate on mitigation in context of developing countries is by and large concentrated on India, China, Brazil and South Africa, this project included work from all four of the BASIC group. The primary objective of the study was to assess and enhance the preparedness of regulatory, policy and institutional arrangements in selected countries. Our TERI (India) partners compiled a list of appropriateness criteria during a process of iterative consultation. Using these criteria in the South African case study our role was to assess the robustness and applicability of these criteria in the South African context.

    Research outputs

    Boyd, A. and Coetzee, K. 2013.Towards an understanding of the variables that affect implementation of mitigation actions. MAPS Working Paper. MAPS / TERI-NFA Working paper, TERI Mitigation Action implementation: understanding variables that affect policy implementation  Available here

    Boyd, A, Coetzee, K and Boulle, M. 2014. What does the current NAMA-space in South Africa look like? A TERI-NFA NAMA Country Report on South Africa. 

    Forthcoming chapter in “Implementing NAMAs Politics, Institutions and Actions. South African chapter in this book is entitled A South African NAMA snapshot: mitigation, implementation and the role of NAMAs. (The book is intended to serve as an essential reference point for academic research, policy making and regime building towards low carbon development in developing countries in a complex global context.)

    Presentation of work (via Skype) at the project workshop entitled “Developing Country Participation in Addressing Climate Change: Analyzing Issues and Options for Implementing NAMAs Thursday. Held in New Delhi, 24 July 2014.

  • UNITAR Phase 2

    Client: UNITAR

    Period:  2009 - 2011

    Project leader at ERC:  Anya Boyd

    Project team at ERC: Debbie Sparks, Thapelo Letete, Alfred Moyo, Andrew Marquard

    The progamme focuses on the implementation of a project on capacity development for adaptation to climate change and GHG mitigation in Non-Annex I Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Under the UNITAR programme, the ERC is part of the C3D+ network, along with partner organisations, and this work is jointly implemented by UNITAR and the ERC in collaboration with the Munasinghe Institute for Sustainable Development (MIND), as well as other partners and supported by a grant from the European Commission.

    Main activities:

    1. Capacity building activities include an internship programme hosted at the ERC, delivery of climate-related short courses, and a bursary programme for trainees registered for the ERC's energy and climate change masters programme.

    2. Support for developing countries National Communications by developing a mitigation analysis toolkit for developing countries, which will consist of a simple set of accessible tools for mitigation analysis, training in the region in the use of the toolkit, and an online resource for tool users. The ERC will evaluate currently-existing tools, and if and where appropriate, will partner with other organisations/institutions in this regard.

    3. Implement jointly with MIND a three year research programme on the interrelationship between energy, poverty and climate change

    4. A 3-year research project on the impacts of climate change mitigation on the South African economy.

      1. Research the impacts of climate change on agriculture in the Western Cape through a case study of deciduous fruit farming, which would

      2. consider the likely impacts of climate change on fruit farming, and

      3. research adaptation strategies.


    Individual project components:

    Mitigation analysis toolkit for developing countries

    Client: UNITAR C3D (sub-project of Unitar Phase 2)

    Period: January 2009 to February 2011

    Project leader: Thapelo Letete

    Project team: ERC interns: Lehlogonolo Chiloane, Gracia Munganga, David Philips

    ERC is in the process of developing a mitigation analysis toolkit over a three year period for developing countries which consists of a simple set of accessible tools for mitigation analysis, training in the region in the use of the toolkit, and an online resource for tool users. The toolkit forms an entry point basis for National Communications and develops energy policy and planning capacity which deepens the understanding of GHG reduction commitments and helps to integrate these better into national development frameworks of developing countries. The main focus of the analysis techniques focus on the energy sector, but the toolkit will contain related tools for non-energy emission mitigation options as well.  

    In the initial phases, the focus was largely on evaluating existing international tools and identifying which tools are deemed to be instrumental in capacitating the developing world. From this was identified a set of tools for the developing world that are either unavailable freely, not available in readily usable forms or totally unavailable in any open-access database. These were then earmarked for development, through this project, to form part of the mitigation analysis toolkit for developing countries.

    The following tools make up the toolkit which is currently under development:

    1. Post-2012 mitigation analysis tool: This excel-based tool allows for the following analyses:

      • Base year comparison

      • Annex I Burden-sharing options

      • NAI emission space

    2. Personal carbon footprint calculator

    3. Mitigation project analysis tool


    Climate change and variability: Adaptation of deciduous fruit farmers in the Western cape

    Client: UNITAR C3D (sub-project of Unitar Phase 2)

    Period: August 2009 to May 2011

    Project leader: Debbie Sparks

    Project team: Mascha Moorlach, independent consultant Jocelyn Muller

    The deciduous fruit farming industry of the Western Cape, South Africa is likely to be impacted by climate change. Grape cultivars will see the effects of climate change, and this could have consequences for the wine industry. An important effect of an increase in temperature and a change in rainfall regime is the likely change in wine quality. The scoping phase of this project confirmed the benefits of a more detailed follow-up study, considering the impacts of climate change on the grape farmers in the deciduous fruit farming industry.

    Primary objectives:

    • To consider the potential impacts of climate change on wine farmers and the farming community Document existing coping strategies in times of climate variability in the Western Cape.
    • Examine the social issues in the wine farming community (which could undermine adaptation efforts if not adequately considered).
    • Provide capacity building and training on (adaptation to) climate change and variability to at least one previously disadvantaged wine farming community.
    • Improvement in farmers’ economic gains through energy efficiency measures.


    • Literature review of fruit farming and climate change in the Western Cape.

    • Field visits to selected previously disadvantaged wine farms (a wine farm was already identified as suitable for this follow-up study during the scoping phase).

    • Capacity building and training of farmers and farming communities through participatory research methods.

    • Energy efficiency will be examined and audited and suggestions for improvements made.

  • South Africa 2050 calender

    Client: Department of Environmental Affairs

    Period: December 2012– December 2014

    Project leaders: Sam Keen, Hilton Trollip, Andrew Marquard

    Project team: Anya Boyd, Sam Keen, Andrew Marquard, Bruno Merven, Bryce McCall, Fadiel Ahjum, Hilton Trollip, Mamahloko Senatla, Katye Altieri, with Craig Mason-Jones (consultant)

    The 2050 Calculator is an interactive user-friendly tool that allows non-experts to develop their own combination of levels of change in different technologies and sectors of the economy to explore different energy and emission scenarios out to 2050. At its heart is a technical energy balancing model that has been extensively peer-reviewed by experts, which brings together sectoral trajectories in different ways to construct possible pathways to 2050.